IAML Annual Study Weekend, April 17-19, 2020

As a result of COVID-19 precautions the IAML (UK & Irl) Conference Committee regrets to announce that the 2020 Annual Study Weekend has had to be postponed. It will now take place from 9th – 11th April 2021, at the same venue: Weetwood Hall, a Grade II listed building, and part of the University of Leeds’ conference facilities. A full statement is available here .

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The final shortlist for the 2019 C.B. Oldman Award is announced!

The C.B. Oldman Prize Committee has pleasure in announcing the final shortlist for the 2019 award:

Bird, M. (ed.). The wanderer : diaries, 1905-1907 / Edward Elgar. (Rickmansworth, Herts : Elgar Works, 2018). ISBN 9781904856597.

Lawson, C. and Stowell, R. (eds). The Cambridge encyclopedia of historical performance in music. (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2018).  ISBN 9781107108080.

Scott, D., Foreman, L. and De’Ath, L. (eds). The Cyril Scott companion: unity in diversity. (Woodbridge : The Boydell Press, 2018). ISBN 9781783272860.

The C.B. Oldman prize is an annual award of £300 for an outstanding work of music bibliography, music reference or music librarianship by an author resident in the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland. The winner will be announced at the forthcoming IAML (UK & Irl) Annual Study Weekend at Weetwood Hall, University of Leeds, and the presentation of the award will take place on the afternoon of Saturday, April 18th, 2020.

Richard L. Jones, Convenor, C.B. Oldman Prize Committee (2019 Prize)

(Music Librarian, Barbican Music Library)

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Changes to Irish copyright legislation

June 2019 saw the Copyright and Other Intellectual Property Provisions Act 2019 being signed into law by President Michael D. Higgins. This Act amended the Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000, and introduces some of the recommendations made by the 2013 ‘Modernising Copyright’ report made by the Copyright Committee. The majority of this Act came into effect on December 2, 2019, and the remainder came into effect six months after the Act was signed into law. These revisions see a number of changes relevant to innovation in a digital environment, ensuring that rightsholders have protection whilst allowing access to creative content for users.

The 2019 Act has covered a broad range of amendments, and I’ll address the ones most relevant to creative work and librarianship below:

  • The term of protection for design and artistic works has increased from a 25 year term to the life of creator + 70 years.

Fair dealing has been significantly updated, reflecting wide use of digital technologies, though is limited to use of the work in non-commercial circumstances.

  • The 2019 Act has expanded existing copyright exceptions for education using digital technology such as interactive whiteboards
  • This act modernises and broadens the existing ‘fair dealing’ exceptions, introducing an exception for use of copyright works for caricature, pastiche and parody. This exception has been created to strike a better balance between rightsholders and freedom of expression, particularly with regard to the internet
  • Fair dealing has also been extended to the use of dedicated terminals on the premises of a library for items in the permanent collection of a library, in the case of education, teaching, research or private study. This also extends to recordings of performances in the permanent collection of a library or archive.
  • Exceptions are also created for the purposes of display of works from a library/archive’s permanent collection

Other amendments:

  • The authorship of a film soundtrack accompanying a film is now to be treated as part of the film
  • The Act confers jurisdiction on the District and Circuit Courts to hear and determine intellectual property claims, including claims of copyright infringement, which should allow claims to be heard in a more timely and cost-effective manner than previously.
  • Data mining: certain exceptions have been introduced where a work is used for text and data-mining purposes, but only in a non-commercial scenario.Exceptions have been introduced for use of recordings of spoken words, for the purposes of reporting and broadcasting, within specific circumstances.

Orphan Works

In 2014, Ireland transposed the EU Orphan Works Directive into SI 490/2014, which gives limited permissions to publicly accessible institutions.

CDSM Directive

As noted by McCann Fitzgerald’s excellent briefing on the 2019 Amendment, many provisions of the CDSM Directive remain to be implemented. This briefing also reflects that “as technology and commerical practices constantly evolve, the process of establishing a modern or fit-for-practice copyright regime will remain an ongoing one”.

Susan Brodigan
Contemporary Music Centre

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News from CILIP

Earlier this year CILIP announced the launch of the “Working Internationally” project. The two year Arts Council funded project aims to promote relevant, accessible and valuable international collaboration for public libraries in England.

The programme runs from May 2019 to December 2020 in partnership with the British Library and the British Council, and aims to deliver innovative projects which promote knowledge-exchange and partnership between the United Kingdom and International Library and Information sector professionals.

Its objectives are:

  • To create a sense of focus, momentum and energy around the opportunities of international working for libraries in England.
  • To inspire and equip libraries to deliver successful international projects, and assure them that international collaboration is accessible and valuable, even where budgets are much stretched
  • To establish libraries as a vibrant and positive addition to the overall picture of international collaboration and diplomacy.
  • To promote the role of UK as an important player in international library and information communities.

CILIP sees this as Phase I of what is hoped to be a longer project. For more information see CILIP’s own pages (see link above).

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Get involved with IAML

The IAML (UK & Irl) Documentation Committee is welcoming expressions of interest to become our new Secretary. The secretary position provides an exciting opportunity to get actively involved in the development of the music library profession, with a particular focus on projects and initiatives around resource discovery and data. The Committee meets three times a year. As Secretary you will be responsible for creating and circulating agenda and minutes in consultation with the Chair. The post is suitable for any stage of career. The main requirement is enthusiasm and an active interest in the field. More information about the committee is available on the IAML (UK&Irl) website – https://iaml-uk-irl.org/committees-and-working-groups

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An early accordion method

One of the greatest joys of managing the early printed music at the Royal College of Music Library is getting to do what I like to call ‘treasure hunting.’ We are in a similar position to many other libraries around the country, I imagine, in that a portion of our special collections are so far not represented on our online catalogue. One of my main roles at the RCM is to work through our early printed collection and catalogue those items which for so long have been left untouched. Some real treasures – hence why I call it treasure hunting – have been unearthed during this process: autograph corrected proof copies of works by Holst, Coleridge-Taylor, and Elgar; an annotated score from Queen Victoria’s coronation; a presentation copy of Smyth’s Mass in D, complete with autographs of all the performers at its second performance; and even a very early English Bible, the Bishops’ Bible, published in 1585. A recent discovery, although of much narrower interest than the above examples, has taken me down quite the rabbit-hole recently.

This rather battered, unassuming accordion tutor was published by T. E. Purday, and arranged by an elusive figure named Gustav von Kleyser. I know of no resource that can offer up any information on this gentleman, and the only other mention of him I have found is simply in reference to a later edition of the same work, held at Bibliothèque musicale de la Ville de Genève. The RCM copy is, to my knowledge, the only copy of the first edition held by any library.

Besides the obscurity of its author, on first glance there appears to be nothing too interesting about this item. In the style of the majority of method books of its day, it begins with a written section on the instrument in question, provides some fingering charts, and ends with some arrangements of the popular tunes of the day. (I use the word ‘arrangement’ in the loosest possible sense, given that these are mostly single melodic lines, firmly centred in the middle register, and could feasibly be played on any treble-clef instrument.) The author skips the customary ‘rudiments of music’ section, evidently holding accordion players in such high regard that he feels confident that they won’t need the basics of pitch and note lengths explained! There is a rather charming illustration of a party of splendidly-dressed men and women, either playing accordions or looking on admiringly.

Kleyser describes the accordion as a ‘new and most extraordinary instrument … with a sweetness of sound which far exceeds the most mellifluous notes that can be obtained from any wind instrument.’

High praise indeed! (As a wind player myself, I must confess that I would be hesitant to describe the accordion in this way.) Thrown off guard, perhaps, by this description, it did occur to me that maybe Kleyser did not have in mind the type of accordions we have today. So which instruments are we talking about, exactly?

The accordion that most of us are familiar with has buttons on the left, a piano-style keyboard on the right, and is so large that it is mostly played sitting down. By contrast, the instruments pictured in Kleyser’s book appear to be much smaller, can be comfortably played whilst standing, and are described as being ‘so light, that a child may carry it under the arm.’ He also provides fingering charts for accordions having only as many as 6, 8, 10 or 12 keys, as opposed to the over 150 keys on a modern accordion. Having recently catalogued a large amount of concertina music, it did occur to me that perhaps the instruments pictured were concertinas: a sort of hexagonal, miniature accordion. Indeed, the concertina was sometimes referred to as an accordion. The concertina as an instrument has enjoyed enormous popularity over recent years, with at least 20 concertina ‘clubs’ meeting regularly in the UK alone (all of whom I have offended, no doubt, by describing their instrument as a miniature accordion). I soon found myself on concertina.com, and drawn to one article in particular: a discussion of the Earliest known English-language German concertina tutor, published in 1846 by Kleyser & Tritschler. The re-appearance of the name Kleyser seemed too large a coincidence to ignore. My (mistaken) belief that this was indeed a concertina method was cemented.

If Kleyser & Tritschler’s 1846 concertina method was the earliest English-language tutor known at the time of the article’s writing, where on the timeline does the present Instructions for playing the French & German accordions fall? Armed with Humphries & Smith, I learned that Thomas Edward Purday operated from the address given on the imprint between 1834 and 1862. A useful start, but still a rather large date range. In the absence of any biographical information about Gustav von Kleyser, I began to give up hope of narrowing this date range any further. That is, until I noticed Kleyser’s arrangement of the National Anthem. Entitled: God save the King. God save… the King. A quick Wikipedia search later, and it was confirmed: Queen Victoria succeeded King William IV in 1837, thus narrowing our date range to a mere three year span: 1834-1837. We can be very thankful that Kleyser chose not to entitle this arrangement simply, ‘The National Anthem’!

Elated in my (again, mistaken) belief that I had discovered an English-language concertina method predating the earliest currently known, I contacted the founder and webmaster of concertina.com, Robert Gaskins (who also happens to be the inventor of PowerPoint – that’s another story…), asking for his expert advice. He wrote back very promptly and thoroughly. I was, as you surely have noticed by now, incorrect about this being a concertina method. Mr. Gaskins observed that some of the accordions pictured in the illustration appear to be left-handed, whilst others are played right-handed (these being the ‘German’ and ‘French’ accordions respectively). A very detailed article by Stephen Chambers provides pictures and descriptions of ‘Viennese’ and ‘French’ accordions (pictures 8 and 9 of the linked article), which very closely resemble those pictured in Kleyser’s book (note in particular, the accordion sitting atop the piano, which has been drawn with great precision).

Chambers dates both of his pictured accordions to circa 1835, which would of course match my speculated date range of 1834-1837. At this stage, Chambers’ excellent article was able to satisfy my remaining questions. The accordion in this early form, having only been patented in 1829, was seen in London as early as 1830, and a tutor was published for it the same year. This Kleyser tutor, therefore, may not be the earliest, but certainly dates to within a decade of the accordion’s invention, and does appear to have been previously unknown in this first edition.

Is there a connection between accordion-lover Gustav von Kleyser, and the concertina publishers and manufacturers Kleyser & Tritschler? Unfortunately, this remains to be answered, although I would invite your speculations. Since Kleyser writes so forcefully about the accordion, I should be a little disappointed to learn that he took up with the new-fangled concertina so soon afterwards. I leave you with a passionate excerpt from his writing, which commends the accordion strongly enough to soften the heart of even this most hardened wind player…

These singular advantages at once account for its being so very fashionable; and, with the present reduction in price, cannot fail of establishing it as a permanent musical instrument, than which, none can be better devised, to develop and direct the musical feelings of the beginner, to communicate to him the meaning of the various expressions belonging to music, and to display all the delicate discrimination, refinement, and impassioned energy, of the most vigorous and accomplished performer.

Instructions for playing the French & German accordions is currently on display at the RCM Library.

Jonathan Frank, Assistant Librarian, Royal College of Music

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Two last nights! Show business in Georgian London

William Heath, Stage Door, 1823.
© Gerald Coke Handel Foundation

If you’re down in London this Christmas season, don’t forget to spend some time at the Foundling Museum, where they have a wonderful exhibition – a how-to-guide to going to a show in eighteenth century Britain.

Displayed throughout the whole Museum, this interactive exhibition delves into the mechanics of theatre and concert going in eighteenth and nineteenth century Britain. With more than 100 objects on display, discover the surprising similarities and astonishing differences between theatre and festival-going then and now, including advertising, ticket sales, audience behaviour and dress code.

Going to a show flourished as a popular pastime in the eighteenth century and as a result the entertainment industry saw rapid expansion: many theatres were built and music festivals began in both London and the provinces. These growing forms of entertainment contributed to the vast range of audience experiences we know today.

Enjoy a fascinating glimpse of behind-the-scenes roles, from theatre managers, set designers and scenery-painters, to the refreshment sellers and ticket collectors. Learn how leading artists of the day, including Hogarth, Hayman and Lambert, crossed over into the world of show business as set designers and scenery painters.

Two Last Nights! explores key venues in London and the provinces, from the theatres of Drury Lane, Covent Garden and Richmond, to the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens and the Foundling Hospital Chapel, as well as the provincial music festivals of other major cities in Britain.

The exhibition is divided into four sections.

Georgian Theatre
Highlights in this section include caricatures and drawings of Georgian audience members, who came to see and be seen. Original advertising, programmes and tickets are displayed alongside information about how Georgian audiences purchased tickets and detail the development of the modern-day ‘box office’.

Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens
An important highlight of the exhibition is an original eighteenth-century supper box painting, Devil to Pay, by Francis Hayman (1708-1776) which depicts the famous actress Kitty Clive.

Ticket Vauxhall, May 31 1792 © Gerald Coke Handel Foundation

Foundling Museum Chapel
Two Last Nights! reveals the importance of the Foundling Hospital Chapel as a music venue in Georgian Britain. George Frideric Handel was a fervent supporter of the Foundling Hospital and from 1749 he gave an annual benefit concert, raising thousands of pounds for the Hospital.

Music Festivals
Visitors can discover how performers capitalised on the summer season and logistical complexities of staging a music festival, including the transport of staging, singers and instruments between venues, travelling only by horse and cart.

The exhibition has already received rave reviews from the Evening Standard. Included in the Museum entrance price, it’s well worth a visit away from the bustle of the festive shops.

Two Last Nights! is supported by the Gerald Coke Handel Foundation, the Two Last Nights! Supporters’ Circle and The 1739 Club.

Katharine Hogg, Gerald Coke Handel Collection, The Foundling Museum

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